The program recently transitioned the chief resident year from the 7th year of residency to PGY6. This change gives residents the opportunity to enfold a Society of Neurological Surgery Committee Accrediting Sub-specialty Training (CAST)-approved fellowship during their PGY 7 year. This “transition to practice” year prepares residents for a practice environment that demands sub-specialization in both academic and private practice. IU School of Medicine Department of Neurological Surgery educators encourage graduates of this residency program to pursue surgeon-scientist academic careers. Approximately 33 percent of the program’s graduates over the past 10 years have successfully transitioned to an academic career. All graduates of this Neurological Surgery Residency program have passed the oral board certification from the American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS) and are able to perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures appropriate to neurological conditions—independently and competently.